Biological Dentistry is an emerging field that recognizes the interplay between oral health and systemic health.

Biological Dentistry is an emerging field that recognizes the interplay between oral health and systemic health. This abstract explores the pivotal role of the microbiome and osteoimmunology as key factors influencing overall systemic health in the context of dentistry.

The oral cavity harbors a diverse array of bacteria, viruses, and fungi, with over 700 different species residing in the mouth. These microorganisms, along with their byproducts and inflammatory mediators, can travel through pathways such as saliva ingestion, potentially impacting other parts of the body.

Studies have revealed that certain bacteria, such as Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, not only cause localized oral diseases but can also have systemic implications. Porphyromonas gingivalis has been linked to gut dysbiosis, surviving stomach acid and disrupting the gut microbiome. Moreover, gingipain secreted by this bacterium has been implicated in the development of Alzheimer’s disease. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, on the other hand, has been found to increase the metastatic potential of pancreatic cancer. The inflammatory response triggered by these bacteria, rather than their direct destruction, contributes to the breakdown of tooth-bearing tissues and feeds into systemic inflammation.

Osteoimmunology, the study of the interaction between the immune system and bone metabolism, provides insights into the complex relationship between inflammation and bone health. Bone, once considered relatively inert, is now recognized as a dynamic tissue undergoing constant remodeling. This process is regulated by various factors, including RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand) and OPG (osteoprotegerin), which modulate osteoclast activity. Bacterial lipopolysaccharides, such as those from Porphyromonas gingivalis, have been shown to increase RANKL expression in osteoblasts, resulting in bone loss in periodontal disease.

Understanding these intricate connections between oral health, the microbiome, osteoimmunology, and systemic health is of utmost importance in biological dentistry. By considering the impact of oral pathogens and inflammation on systemic health, a comprehensive approach can be adopted to promote oral and overall well-being. Further research and clinical investigations are warranted to advance our understanding and develop effective strategies in biological dentistry to improve patient outcomes and systemic health.